Jukka Ojasalo, Kirsi-Maria Holopainen



Enhancing Collaborative Innovation of Cities with Pre-Commercial Procurement: Empirical Findings on Opportunities and Approaches

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The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge of the opportunities and approaches of using pre-commercial procurement (PCP) in enhancing collaborative innovation of cities with external actors. The external actors refer to private companies, 3rd sector organizations, and research institutions such as universities. So far, the knowledge of this area is scarce and there is a clear need for research. The present findings stem from an empirical study on open innovation platforms in Smart Cities, and one of the aspects addressed in the study is pre-commercial procurement. The research method is qualitative and draws on extensive data from in-depth interviews and co-creative multi-actor workshops. As the result, this study identifies and describes a large number of opportunities and approaches of using pre-commercial procurement (PCP) in enhancing collaborative innovation of cities with external actors. These findings contribute to the scientific literature as well as provide guidelines to officials in city governments and urban policy makers.


Pre-commercial procurement PCP, Innovative public procurement, Public Procurement for Innovation PPI, Public sector innovation, Collaborative innovation, Open innovation, Service innovation, Urban development


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Cite this paper

Jukka Ojasalo, Kirsi-Maria Holopainen. (2016) Enhancing Collaborative Innovation of Cities with Pre-Commercial Procurement: Empirical Findings on Opportunities and Approaches. Economics and Management Systems, 1, 192-201


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