Sherif Algohary, Aly I. M. Aly



A Proposal for Using Zafarana Area for Siting οf A Hybrid Wind and Nuclear Power Plant in Egypt

pdf PDF


Siting is considered as an important crosscutting issue for all power plants and it plays a big role in forming the nature and geographic distribution of these plants. Zafarana was selected from the Egyptian government to have the biggest wind farm in the country with a capacity of 545 MW. However, it is located in one of the ambitious new development mega projects for the development of Gulf of Suez and Galala city which is a part of the Egyptian government strategy for 2030. This paper discusses feasibility of a proposal for introducing hybrid wind and nuclear power plant in Zafarana site. It describes different siting considerations for wind farms and also the nuclear power plants in general. According to different studies Zafarana has a high seismic risk. New trend in the world for use the seismic isolated foundations, which was implemented in 6 nuclear power plants for reduction of seismic risk and reducing the construction cost of the NPP. It can be concluded that the proposal of siting hybrid wind and NPP power plants in Zafarana is feasible and can be studied as one of the potential sites from the technical, environmental point of view. More investigation should be done in the seismic risk reduction


Siting, Hybrid, Nuclear, Wind, Zafarana


[1] Algohary, S. and Aly, A. I. M., “A Proposal for National Efficient Land Use Planning for Power Plants in Egypt: An Integrated Nuclear Renewable Hybrid Energy System”, International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 9, Issue, 06, June, 2017.

[2] International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 'Site Survey and Site Selection for Nuclear Installations”, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-35, 2015.

[3] Yasin Sunak, Tim Höfer, Hafiz Siddique, Reinhard Madlener, Rik W. De Doncker, “ A GIS-based Decision Support System for the Optimal Siting of Wind Farm Projects”, Volume 7, Issue 2, E.ON Energy Research Center Series, E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen Germany, 2015, www.eonerc.rwthaachen. de.

[4] Tegou, L.-I., Polatidis, H., Haralambopoulos, D.A., “Environmental management Framework for Wind Farm Siting: Methodology and Case Study”, Journal of Environmental Management, 91(11): 2134–2147, 2010.

[5] Scottish Natural Heritage, “Siting and Designing windfarms in the landscape”, Version 1December 2009, www.snh.org.uk.

[6] M.A.Khattak, Abdoulhdi Amhmad Borhana Omran, Ali Najah Ahmed, Aishah Umairah, Mohamad Amirudin Mohamad Rosli, Syeheer Sabri, Mohammad Akmal Saad, Mubin Solehan Abd. Hamid, S.Kazi, “Siting Consideration for Nuclear Power Plant: A Review”, Open Science Journal, July 2017.

[7] Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Authority (ENRRA), “Site Evaluation Requirements for Nuclear Installation”, 2016.

[8] Ahmad Abu El Hassan Zarad, State Information Service, “The Mega National Projects- a Locomotive of Development”, http://www.sis.gov.eg/section/337/4683?lan g=en-us.

[9] Muhammad Salem, Taher Osman, “A New Map for Urban Development in Egypt, depending on Mega Projects of Renewable Energy”, Sustainable Mega Projects Conference, At British University in Egypt, Volume: 2, May 2016.

[10] Abd el-aziz Khairy Abd el-aal, Heba Kamal, Mohamed Abdelhay, Khalid Elzahaby, “Probabilistic and Stochastic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Wind Turbine Tower Sites in Zafarana Wind Farm, Gulf of Suez, Egypt”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Volume 74, Issue 4, pp 1225–1241, November 2015.

[11] Max Wyss, “Shortcuts in Seismic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Power Plants are Not-Acceptable”, International Centre for Earth Simulation, Geneva, Switzerland, Elsevier, 2015.

[12] Rashad Sawires, Jose ´ A. Pela ´ez, Raafat E. Fat-Helbary, Hamza A. Ibrahim, “A Review of Seismic Hazard Assessment Studies and Hazard Description in the Building Codes for Egypt”, Acta Geod Geophys, 2016.

[13] Justin Coleman and Piyush Sabharwall, “ Seismic Risk Management Solution for Nuclear Power Plants”, Federation of American Scientists (FAS), Public Interest Reports, Volume 67 Number 4 Seismic Risk Management, Nov. 2014.

[14] Idaho national Laboratory (INL), U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, “Characterizing the Benefits of Seismic Isolation for Nuclear Structures: A Framework for Risk-Based Decision Making”, November 2016.

[15] Jenna Wong, PhD Candidate, “Overview of Seismic Isolation of Nuclear Power Plants”, UC Berkeley, PEER Annual Meeting, October 26, 2012.

[16] E. Blandford, E. Keldrauk, M. Laufer, M. Mieler, J. Wei, B. Stojadinovic, and P.F. Peterson, “ Advanced Seismic Base Isolation Methods for Modular Reactors”, University of California Berkeley, California September 30, 2009.

[17] Yin-Nan Huang1, Andrew S. Whittaker2 and Nicolas Luco, “Seismic Performance Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants”, 14 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, October 12-17, 2008.

[18] Stevenson, J. D., "Evaluation of the Cost Effects on Nuclear Power Plant Construction Resulting from the Increase in Seismic Design Level." NUREG/CR-1508, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C., 1981.

[19] Chandrakanth Bolisetti, Chingching Yu, Justin Coleman, Ben Kosbab, Andrew Whittakerb, “Characterizing the Benefits of Seismic Isolation of Nuclear Structures in Terms of Re duced Risk and Cost”, Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, Vol. 116, San Francisco, California, June 11–15, 2017.

Cite this paper

Sherif Algohary, Aly I. M. Aly. (2018) A Proposal for Using Zafarana Area for Siting οf A Hybrid Wind and Nuclear Power Plant in Egypt. International Journal of Renewable Energy Sources, 3, 10-19


Copyright © 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0