Asli Sari, Gülfem Isiklar Alptekin



An Overview of Crowdsourcing Concepts in Software Engineering

pdf PDF


The effect of crowdsourcing has increased dramatically in recent years. This paper focuses on the crowdsourcing concept and research in software engineering from different aspect. First, the definition of crowdsourcing is given in detail, together with its challenges in software engineering. Furthermore, different development approaches such as insourcing, outsourcing, open source and nearshore are represented with their differences from crowdsourcing. Currently popular commercial applications, platforms, business models are given. The idea behind its pricing theory is discussed.


Crowdsourcing, software engineering, software development


[1] P. Welinder and P. Perona, “Online crowdsourcing: Rating annotators and obtaining cost-effective labels,” 2010 IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. - Work. CVPRW 2010, pp. 25–32, 2010.

[2] K. Mao, L. Capra, M. Harman, and Y. Jia, “A Survey of the Use of Crowdsourcing in Software Engineering,” pp. 1–36, 2015.

[3] O. F. Zaidan and C. Callison-Burch, “Crowdsourcing Translation: Professional Quality from Non-Professionals.,” Acl, pp. 1220–1229, 2011.

[4] B. J. Howe, “The Rise of Crowdsourcing,” no. 14, pp. 1–5, 2012.

[5] M. Vukovi, “Crowdsourcing for Enterprises Maja Vukovi,” pp. 686–692, 2009.

[6] A. Bohliqa, “A Study of the U . S . Intrastate Crowdfunding Exemptions,” pp. 961–967, 2015.

[7] M. Science and T. Beijing, “A Short Literature Review on Reward-based Crowdfunding.”

[8] B. D. Specialist, “Crowdfunding as a Catapult for Innovation in the Middle East : Obstacles and Possibilities,” 2014.

[9] D. Stevens, “Crowdsourcing: Pros, Cons, and More - Hongkiat.” [Online]. Available: http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/what-iscrowdsourcing/.

[10] T. D. Latoza, “Crowdsourcing in Software Engineering and Challenges,” 2016.

[11] N. Naik, “Crowdsourcing , Open-sourcing , Outsourcing and Insourcing Software Development : A Comparative Analysis,” pp. 380–385, 2016.

[12] B. M. Good and A. I. Su, “Crowdsourcing for bioinformatics,” Bioinformatics, vol. 29, no. 16, pp. 1925–1933, 2013.

[13] R. Khare, B. M. Good, R. Leaman, A. I. Su, and Z. Lu, “Crowdsourcing in biomedicine: Challenges and opportunities,” Brief. Bioinform., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2016.

[14] K. Yang, K. Zhang, J. Ren, and X. Shen, “Security and privacy in mobile crowdsourcing networks: challenges and opportunities,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 75–81, 2015.

[15] C. Midoglu, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Crowdsourced Measurements for Mobile Network Benchmarking A Case Study on RTR Open Data,” pp. 996–1005, 2016.

[16] M. Sabou, K. Bontcheva, and A. Scharl, “Crowdsourcing research opportunities: lessons from natural language processing,” Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Knowl. Manag. Knowl. Technol. ACM, NY, USA, p. 8, 2012.

[17] D. S. Weld, E. Adar, L. Chilton, R. Hoffmann, E. Horvitz, M. Koch, J. Landay, C. H. Lin, and Mausam, “Personalized online education—a crowdsourcing challenge,” Proc. 4th Hum. Comput. Work., pp. 159– 163, 2012.

[18] W. M. To and L. S. L. Lai, “Crowdsourcing in China: Opportunities and concerns,” IT Prof., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 53–59, 2015.

[19] R. S. Aris, N. Mastuki, N. H. Arshad, S. S. Salleh, N. Janom, and S. R. S. Aris, “Issues and Challenges in Crowdsourcing Platform Implementation in Malaysia,” Appl. Comput. Sci., pp. 95–100, 2013.

[20] Y. Zhao and Q. Zhu, “Evaluation on crowdsourcing research: Current status and future direction,” Inf. Syst. Front., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 417–434, 2014.

[21] J. Feller and B. Fitzgerald, “A Framework Analysis of The Open Source Software Development Paradigm,” ICIS ’00 Proc. twenty first Int. Conf. Inf. Syst., pp. 58–69, 2000.

[22] G. M. Olson and J. S. Olson, “Distance matters,” Human-Computer Interact., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 139–178, 2000.

[23] E. Carmel and P. Abbott, “Configurations of global software development: offshore versus nearshore,” … Glob. Softw. Dev. Pract., pp. 3–7, 2006.

[24] A. Delmonte and R. McCarthy, “Offshore Software Development: Is the Benefit Worth the Risk?,” AMCIS 2003 Proceeding, vol. 204, pp. 1607–1613, 2003.

[25] X. Peng, M. Ali Babar, and C. Ebert, “Collaborative software development platforms for crowdsourcing,” IEEE Softw., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 30–36, 2014.

[26] H. Tajedin and D. Nevo, “Determinants of success in crowdsourcing software development,” Proc. 2013 Annu. Conf. Comput. people Res. - SIGMIS-CPR ’13, p. 173, 2013.

[28] W. . Wu, W.-T. . c Tsai, and W. . Li, “An evaluation framework for software crowdsourcing,” Front. Comput. Sci., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 694–709, 2013.

[29] B. Bergvall-Kåreborn and D. Howcroft, “The Apple business model: Crowdsourcing mobile applications,” Account. Forum, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 280–289, 2013.

[30] D. Gefen, G. Gefen, and E. Carmel, “The Journal of Systems and Software How project description length and expected duration affect bidding and project success in crowdsourcing software development,” vol. 116, pp. 75–84, 2016.

[31] B. Satzger, H. Psaier, D. Schall, and S. Dustdara, “Auction-based crowdsourcing supporting skill management,” Inf. Syst., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 547–560, 2013.

[32] D. Dipalantino and M. Vojnocic, “Crowdsourcing and all-pay auctions,” Proc. 11th ACM Conf. Electron. Commer. EC2010, pp. 119–128, 2010.

[33] T. X. Liu, J. Yang, L. A. Adamic, and Y. Chen, “Crowdsourcing with all-pay auctions: A field experiment on Taskcn,” Proc. ASIST Annu. Meet., vol. 48, no. November 2016, 2011.

[34] T. X. Liu, J. Yang, L. A. Adamic, and Y. Chen, “Crowdsourcing with all-pay auctions: A field experiment on Taskcn,” Proc. ASIST Annu. Meet., vol. 48, 2011.

[35] O. Lev, M. Polukarov, Yo. Bachrach, and J. S. Rosenschein, “Mergers and collusion in all-pay auctions and crowdsourcing contests,” 12th Int. Conf. Auton. Agents Multiagent Syst., pp. 675–682, 2013.

[36] Z. Hu and W. Wu, “Game Theoretic Analysis for Offense-Defense Challenges of Algorithm Contests on TopCoder,” 2015 IEEE Symp. Serv. Syst. Eng., pp. 339–346, 2015.

[37] C. Liu, S. Wang, C. Wang, R. Bie, and D. Shin, “Stackelberg Game Based Optimal Workload Allocation and Pricing Mechanism in Crowdsourcing,” 2016 IEEE Int. Conf. Big Data Cloud Comput. (BDCloud), Soc. Comput. Netw. (SocialCom), Sustain. Comput. Commun., pp. 193–200, 2016.

Cite this paper

Asli Sari, Gülfem Isiklar Alptekin. (2017) An Overview of Crowdsourcing Concepts in Software Engineering. International Journal of Computers, 2, 106-114


Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0