Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha, Ada O. Chikezie, Henry Ojukwu



Assessment of Nutritional Value of Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea) Irrigated with Domestic Wastewater and Potable Water

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Farmers along open channels in urban areas are taking advantage of the continuous flow of wastewater for irrigation of food crops. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of raw domestic wastewater on the nutritional composition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) under field conditions from germination to maturity. To achieve this aim, spinach was irrigated with raw wastewater (plot A) and potable water (plot B) using surface irrigation technique. Physical and chemical properties of raw domestic wastewater and soil as well as proximate and mineral analyses of spinach were conducted. The results revealed a moderate restriction in the use of the raw wastewater in terms of its dissolved oxygen (0.18±0.11 mg/L), total dissolved solids (1403.67±15.82 mg/L) and electrical conductivity (1350±10 µs/cm). Other water quality parameters that made the raw wastewater unsuitable for irrigation are COD (250.67±6.03 mg/L), BOD5 (117.33±3.06 mg/L), ammonium-N (40.34±0.76 mg/L), nitrate-N (163.33±1.53 mg/L), and phosphate-P (10.05±0.05). The high nitrogen content in the raw wastewater can result into intensive growth, retard or uneven maturity as well as low yield. Also, the soil analysis revealed that irrigation with raw wastewater increased the exchangeable Na, K and Mg in plot A than plot B. However, plot B showed a higher population density than plot B at germination stage with plot A exhibiting higher dominance at maturity. In addition, leafy spinach from plot B was observed to have higher quality than spinach cultivated with wastewater. Thus, it is highly recommended that raw domestic wastewater should be properly treated before use. Nevertheless, the use of wastewater for irrigation can have multiple benefits of wastewater management, alternative source of water resources and a source of nutrients.


Assessment, Domestic wastewater, Growth rate, Irrigation, Nutrition, Potable water, Proximate analysis, Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)


Cite this paper

Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha, Ada O. Chikezie, Henry Ojukwu. (2020) Assessment of Nutritional Value of Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea) Irrigated with Domestic Wastewater and Potable Water. International Journal of Environmental Science, 5, 264-270


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