Cristian Păuna



Heikin-Ashi Algorithms Optimized for High-Frequency Trading Systems

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Heikin-Ashi is the Japanese term for "average bar". This methodology is well known as one of the methods to identify and follow the trends using a price time series in financial markets. Nowadays, in the first decades of the 21st century, in the electronic trading environment, with very volatile price market conditions, using the Heikin-Ashi method gets new and special connotations especially when it is about the high-frequency trading. It was found that combining the classical Heikin-Ashi candlesticks with modern limit conditions reliable trading algorithms can be generated in order to produce a good trading return with automated trading systems. This paper will present several trading algorithms based on Heikin-Ashi method for algorithmic trading especially adapted for high-frequency trading systems. It will be revealed how the trading signals can be automatically built and used in order to automate the trading decisions and orders. Exit signals will also be discussed. Trading results obtained with the presented algorithms for Frankfurt Stock Exchange Deutscher Aktienindex Market will be displayed in order to qualify the methods and to compare them with any other trading strategies for high-frequency trading. As conclusions, Heikin-Ashi combined with special limit conditions can generate reliable trading models for algorithmic trading.


algorithmic trading, automated trading systems, Heikin-Ashi, high-frequency trading


Cite this paper

Cristian Păuna. (2019) Heikin-Ashi Algorithms Optimized for High-Frequency Trading Systems. International Journal of Economics and Management Systems, 4, 305-310


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