Gideon Emelue, Joseph Idaewor



Assessment Of Microbial Count Loads Of Bush Meats Sold At Different Markets In Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

pdf PDF


The preliminary study was carried out to assess the microbial count load of bush meat at different markets in Benin City, Edo State Nigeria. A reconnaissance survey was carried out to obtain a total of twenty (20) commissioned markets within the city, which were later structured according to their local government area. Forty (40%) sampling intensity was used to purposively select nine (9) markets where duiker, cane rat and bush pig were sold respectively from the twenty (20) markets within the metropolis. Samples of smoked bush meat were purchased from nine markets (Uselu, Use, Egor, Ekiosa, Oregbeni, Arbico, Ekiuwa, New Benin, Oliha respectively), and transported to the laboratory using sterile plastic bags. Five (5g) of each sample were accurately weighed on an electric scale. The bush meat was aseptically chopped into pieces with sterile surgical knife and the chopped bush meat was then inoculated into a nutrient broth for Twenty four (24) hours to enable fastidious organism growth. After Twenty four (24) hours, the broth containing the bush meat were sub-cultured into Mac-conkey, Blood agar, Chocolate agar, Sabrose agar and Potatoes dextrose agar. Then after inoculation, the plates were read and isolates recovered were subjected to gram staining and biochemical analysis for identification such as coagulase, catalase, indole citrate, urease and oxidase tests. Therefore, the count of microbial load of bush meat for each of the selected markets was estimated and a statistical design (RCBD) was used to analyze it. The result showed that the samples had high viable counts. Bacteria counts ranged from 1.73×106 to 9.46×106 cfu/g which is above the threshold level for delicatessen (>6×105cfu/g). Seven (7) bacteria isolates: Staphylococcus epidermilis, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus feacalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Providencia freundii, and Proteus vulgaris were identified. Staphylococcus epidemilis was the most common isolate followed by Proteus mirabilis, while Oregbeni and Uselu markets had the highest and least bacteria count respectively. The findings indicated no fungi growth in the bush meat which could be due to the preservative method. The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference (P˃0.05) among the selected bush meat species and also among the selected markets. It could be concluded that when the preservative and hygienic procedure are not properly carried out, microbial activities increases which caused the deterioration of the bush meat. The large number of microbial counts load in this study may be attributed to the fact that there is no agency monitoring the handling and hygiene of the sales of bush meat sold at various markets in Benin City. Meat handlers and sellers should be properly educated on the adverse effect of lack of proper personal and environmental hygiene and sanitation and to ensure that the bush meats used for consumption purposes should be adequately and properly cooked and preserved before use.


Assessment, Microbial count load, Bush meat, Deterioration, Preservation.


[1] Nakai S. Modler WH (2000). Food proteins, 1sted. Wiley-VCH, Inc., New York, U.S.A pp. 128-133.

[2] Hammer GF (1987). Meat processing ripened products. Fleischwiritschaft 67:71-74. http://www.the onion.com/ contents/news. April 2009.

[3] Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y ., (1997); Wildlife and food security in African FAO (Rome).

[4] Onadeko S.A. (2004); Home On The Range: Crises, Consequences And Consolations

[4] BCTF. 2003. BCTF Fact Sheet: Global Human Health. Bushmeat Crisis Task Force. Washington, DC. 2 pages.

[5] Ebabhamiegbeho, P.A, Nwande C.F, and Igene J.O (2011): Lipid and Microbial Evaluation of Smoke-Dried Grasscutter on Retail. 35th Conference/AGM of the Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology Proceedings.

[6] Hogenboom, Melissa (October 18, 2014). "Ebola: Is bushmeat behind the outbreak?". BBC News. Retrieved October 21, 2014.

[7] ACET (The African Centre for Economic Transformation) (2014); Bushmeat and the future of protein in West African.

[8] Barnett, R. (2000) Food for Thought: The Utilisation of Wild Meat in Eastern and Southern Africa. TRAFFIC/ WWF/IUCN, Nairobi, Kenya.

[9] Fa, J.E., C.A. Peres, and J. Meeuwig (2002) Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: an intercontinental comparison. Conservation Biology 16: 232-237.

[10] Wilkie, D.S., Carpenter, J.F. (1999) Bushmeat hunting in the Congo Basin: An assessment of impacts and options for migration. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 927-955.

[11] Ebabhamiegbeho, P.A, Amudede, M.M, Evivie, S.E and Ekhoritomwen (2016): Assessment of microbiological status of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetable salads sold in the University of Benin Community. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Volume 15(1), 2016.

[12] Mohammed M.A.M., 2012. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from meat products sold at Mansoura city, Egypt. Food Control, 25, 159-164

[13] Zakpaa, H.D, Imbeah, C.M and Mak- Mensah, E.E, (2009): Microbial characterization of fermented meat products on some selected markets in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. (African Journal of Food Science Vol 3(11) pp. 340-346).

[14] Wilson NRP, Dyertt EJ, Hughes BR, Jones CRV (1981): Meat and meat products, factors affecting quality control, 5th ed. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., England pp. 81-108.

[15] Igene J.O. and Ebabhamiegbeho, P.A. (2007): The Scientific basis of Quality Assurance for Livestock Products. J. Agric Forest. And Fish. Vol. 8 (1&2).

[16] Rombouts FM, Nout R (1994). Food Microbiology and Hygiene. Encyclope dia of Human Biology, Academic Press 3:661-665.

[17] Abolagba, O. J. and Iyeru O. A. (1998): Study of Insect Pests Infecting Traditionally Processed Fish Sold in Benin City Metropolis, Nigeria. Nig. J. Applied Sci; 16: 25-29.

[18] Soyiri, IN, Agboji HK, Dongdem JT, (2008): A pilot microbial assessment of beef sold in the Ashaiman market, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 8(1): 91-103.

Cite this paper

Gideon Emelue, Joseph Idaewor. (2018) Assessment Of Microbial Count Loads Of Bush Meats Sold At Different Markets In Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 3, 20-25


Copyright © 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0