Women in the Education sector: Monitoring and Evaluation of Women Empowerment and Educational Leadership

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The extent of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) realization provides lessons for the future policies and programs relating to women empowerment in the education sector. First, we express a critical view that the link between universal primary education (MDG2) and gender equality and women empowerment (MDG 3) was largely ignored in the monitoring and evaluating the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. We therefore argue that there is a necessity for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to go beyond the simple measures of women empowerment in the education sector was used in quantifying MDGs' achievement to more comprehensive measurements. In the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), one of the perspectives of delving women in academia is using SDG number 4, 'Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all,’ to measure the SDG number 5, 'Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls’ - and the vice versa. We discuss more comprehensive perspectives of measuring women's empowerment in the education sector. We focus on three school management variables as measures of women empowerment: 1) the nature of both internal and external audits to ensure accountability and transparency; 2) professionalism enhancement (nature of the In-service education training); and 3) the analysis of resource needs in empowering women. The study concludes that some challenges of women empowerment and leadership emerge from the education sector governance while others originate from the broader societal structures. There is a need for more integrated analysis in monitoring and evaluating SDGs achievement. Consistently accurate and relevant data is requisite and essential to monitoring and evaluating the real effects of education policies on women empowerment to enable a thorough analysis.


Women empowerment, leadership, education sector, Sustainable Development Goals, monitoring and evaluation


Cite this paper

Samuel Mwangi Wanjiku, Annie Wanjugu Karobia, Jacqueline Karimi Njeru. (2020) Women in the Education sector: Monitoring and Evaluation of Women Empowerment and Educational Leadership. International Journal of Education and Learning Systems, 5, 10-20


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