The paper is addressed to the description of activities of non-governmental organizations of Latvia to overcome the problem of depopulation and shrinking in rural territories in Latvia. Authors use the term “renewal of society” in the context of endogenous and neo-endogenous development revealing the significant role of non-governmental organizations and civil society in rural areas in Latvia. Results collected using qualitative social research methods unveil non-governmental organizations in rural territories of Latvia as not only the animators and facilitators of rural development, but also as strong agents of creating social and economical structures that challenge existing political structures and relations between state and civil society.
renewal of society, rural territories, rural development, civil society, non-governmental organizations, animators
 TNS Latvija. Latvijas iedzīvotāju uzticēšanās dažādām institūcijām. Available from: http://www.tns.lv/?lang=lv&fullarticle=true&category=showuid&id=4938 [accessed Aug 6 2017].
 Life – Development – Well-Being in the Latvian Countryside, “Zinātne” Publishers, 2012.
 Muranyi, I. (ed.), Eternal Return? The Specter of Radicalism among Young People in Europe and Hungary. Budapest: L'Harmattan, p. 224.
 Koopmans, M.E., et al., The role of multi-actor governance in aligning farm modernization and sustainable rural development, Journal of Rural Studies, 2017, pp. 1-11.
 Knickel, K., Between aspirations and reality: Making farming, food systems and rural areas more resilient, sustainable and equitable, Journal of Rural Studies, available online 1 July 2017.
 Word, J., Park, S.M., Working Across the Divide: Job Involvement in the Public and Nonprofit sectors, Review of Public Personnel Administration, Vol.29., No.2, 2009, pp. 103-133.
 Striano, M., Philosophical Inquiry as a Practice for Social Development. Available from: http://www.e-publicacoes.uerj.br/index.php/childhood/article/view/20557/14883 [Accessed Aug 5 2017].
 Bock B.B., Rural Marginalization and the Role of Social Innovation; A Turn Towards Nexogenous Development and Rural Reconnnection. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol.56, No.4, 2016, pp. 552-573.
 Neumeier, S., Social innovation in rural development: identifying the key factors of success, The Geographical Journal, Vol.183, No.1, 2017, pp. 34-46.
 Definition of RENEWAL. An Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. Available from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/renewal [Accessed Aug 5 2017]
 Davis, F., Yearning for Yesterday: A Sociology of Nostalgia. New York: Free Press, 1979.
 Autio M., Nostalgia. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Consumption and Consumer Studies. Daniel Thomas Cook & J. Michael Ryan (Eds). Wiley-Blackwell. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274066852_Nostalgia [Accessed Aug 6, 2017].
 What does Social Renewal Mean to you?, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhflY0O_Wf0 [Accessed Aug 7, 2017].
 Dillon, M., Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-First Century, 2nd edition, 2014, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, p. 565.
 Steiner, R., Towards Social Renewal: Rethinking the Basis of Society. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 4th edition, 1999.
 Drake, G., “This place gives me space”: place and creativity in the creative industries, Geoforum, Vol.34, 2003, pp. 511-524.
 Social Justice: Strategies for National Renewal. The Report of the Commission on Social Justice. Vintage, 1994.
 Lawton K., Cooke G., Pearce N., The Condition of Britain: Strategies for Social Renewal. Institute for Public Policy Research, 2014.
 A New Commitment to Neighbourhood Renewal. National Strategy Action Plan. Report by the Social Exclusion Unit, 2001.
 People, Place and Community. Institute for Social Renewal, Newcastle University. Available from: http://www.ncl.ac.uk/socialrenewal/research/researchthemes/people/#overview [accessed Aug 13 2017]
 Horlings, L.G., Marsden, T.K., Exploring the 'New Rural Paradigm’ in Europe: Eco-economic strategies as a counterface to the global competitiveness agenda, European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol.21, No.1, 2014, pp. 4-20.
 McAreavey, R., Donagh, J., Sustainable Rural Tourism: Lessons for Rural Development, Sociologia Ruralis, Vol.51, No.2, 2011, pp. 175-194.
 Naldi, L., Nilsson, P., Westlund, H., Wixe, S., What is smart rural development? Journal of Rural Studies, Vol.40, 2015, pp. 90-101.
 Chiangmai, C.N., Creating efficient collaboration for knowledge creation in area-based rural development, Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.38, pp. 175-180.
 Papageorgiou, F., (ed.), Local Governance and Sustainable Rural Development: Thematic Guide Ten, 2011. Available from: http://www.euracademy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Euracademy_TG10_Local_GovernanceSRD.pdf [Accessed Aug 22 2017].
 Furmankiewicz, M., Janc, K., Macken – Walsh A., The impact of EU governance and rural development policy on the development of the third sector in rural Poland: A nation-wide analysis, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol.43, 2016, pp. 225-234.
 Bhaker, S.K., Role of NGOs in Rural Development in India. Journal of Business & Economic Policy, Vol.1, No.1, 2014, pp. 93-109.
 Yanacopulos, H., Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs), International Encyclopedia of Public Health (Second Edition), 2017, pp. 251-256.
 Weerawardena, J., McDonald R., Sullivan Mort, G., Sustainability of 9on-profit organizations: An empirical investigation, Journal of World Business, Vol.45, No.4, 2010, pp. 346-356.
 Valentinov, V., Hielscher, S., Pies, I., Nonprofit organizations, institutional economics, and systems thinking, Economic Systems, Vol.39, No.3, 2015, pp. 491-501.
 Making Europe Grow with its Rural Territories. Contribution to a European Rural Agenda post 2020, 2016. Available from: http://doc.ruraleurope.org/public/Web/Communication/RED/EN/RED-Com2030-E.pdf [Accessed Aug 21 2017].
 For a European Rural Agenda post 2020, 2017. Available from: http://doc.ruraleurope.org/public/Web/Communication/RED/EN/RED-Com2017-1-E.pdf [Accessed Aug 21 2017].
 Shand, R., The Governance of Sustainable Rural Renewal: A comparative global perspective. London: Routledge, 2016.
 Bryden, J., Rural renewal in Europe: global tendencies and local responses, 1998. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rur/leader2/rural-en/biblio/global/art01.htm [Accessed Aug 22 2017].
 Valsts pētījumu programma, 2014. Available from:http://www.lza.lv/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=249&Itemid=443 [Accessed Sept 4 2017].
 The Review of the NGO Sector in Latvia 2015. Civic Alliance – Latvia, 2016. Available from: http://nvo.lv/site/attachments/29/04/2016/NVO_PARSKATS_EN_20.04-2.pdf [Accessed Aug 30 2017].
 Pilsoniskas sabiedrības ilgtspējīgas attīstības indekss 2016 – Latvija. USAID. Available from: http://www.nvo.lv/site/attachments/14/07/2017/Latvia.pdf [Accessed Sept 7].
 Latvia's corruption score improves, but ranking falls, 2017. Available from: http://eng.lsm.lv/article/society/society/latvias-corruption-score-improves-but-ranking-falls.a220677/ [Accessed Aug 30 2017].
 Habibov, N., Afandi, E., Cheung, A., Sand or grease? Corruption – institutional trust nexus in post-Soviet countries, Journal of Eurasian Studies, Vol.8, 2017, pp. 172-184.
 Marin, R., The local political elites in East-Central Europe: between the legacy of the past and the decentralization of the present, Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, Vol.183, 2015, pp. 30-39.
 Money provided for deputy quotas is wasted; no one wants to take responsibility, 2016. Available from: http://bnn-news.com/money-provided-for-deputy-quotas-is-wasted-no-one-wants-to-take-responsibility-155964 [Accessed Aug 30 2017].
 Latvian Rural Forum, 2017. Available from: http://llf.partneribas.lv/en/ [Accessed Sept 3 2017].
 Bite, D., Kruzmetra, Ž., The Strategies of Renewal of Society in Rural Territories in Latvia, Psychology and psychiatry, sociology and healthcare, education conference proceedings, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Vol.2, 2016, pp. 1134-1138.
 Bite, D., Cooperation of Local Governments in Latvia. Doctoral thesis, University of Latvia, 2012. Available from: https://dspace.lu.lv/dspace/handle/7/4819 [Accessed Aug 29 2017].
 Smiltenes pusē ģimene saviem spēkiem izveido autobusa pieturas nojumi. Available from: http://www.lsm.lv/raksts/zinas/latvija/smiltenes-puse-gimene-saviem-spekiem-izveido-autobusu-pieturas-nojumi.a245166/ [Accessed Aug 28 2017].
 Necerot sagaidīt labāku brauktuvi, uzņemējs par savu naudu noasfaltē valsts ceļu. Available from: http://www.lsm.lv/raksts/zinas/latvija/necerot-sagaidit-labaku-brauktuvi-uznemejs-par-savu-naudu-noasfalte-valsts-celu.a243233/ [Accessed Aug 28 2017].
Cite this paper
Dina Bite, Ženija Kruzmetra. (2017) Non-Governmental Organizations as the Key Actors of Renewal of Rural Territories in Latvia. International Journal of Economics and Management Systems, 2, 277-286
Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0