Text and pictures can be used to deliver information in advertisements. Thus, this study attempts to identify the criteria of effective text and visual use in two of the most visible online stores. Text use is analysed by using the persuasion techniques from The Art of Rhetoric (ethos, logos and pathos) and visual use is analysed by using content analysis. The findings have shown that both online stores indeed have been using all the effective elements in their advertisements. Ethos is used by using arguments and question and answers. Logos is built through celebrity endorsement, award winner reputation, organizations’ stamp and approval and quality manufacturing practices. Pathos is shown through the use of positive and enticing words. Visually, both stores provide big pictures, action pictures, picture with zoom in feature, pictures with end products as well as providing more than one picture for a product in their advertisements.
Language use, language in advertising, online business, online stores, online advertising, technology and business, logos, ethos and pathos, digital economy, online shopping, e-commerce
 Abayi, M. & Khoshtinat, B. (2016). Study of the impact of advertising on online shopping tendency for airline tickets by considering motivational factors emotional factors. Procedia Economics and Finance 36(2016).
 Anon. (2014). Advertisers will spend nearly $600 billion worldwide. http://www.emarketer.com/Article/AdvertisersWill-Spend-Nearly-600-Billion-Worldwide2015/1011691
 Anon. (2014). Malaysians rank among the world’s most avid online shoppers. http://www.nielsen.com/my/en/pressroom/2014/e-commerce.html
 Cook, G. 1992. The Discourse of Advertising. London: Routledge.
 Cook, G. (Ed). (2008). The language of advertising. Abingdon: Routledge.
 Dwoskin, E. (2013). Study: digital marketing industry worth $62 billion. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2013/10/14/studydigital-marketing-industry-worth-62-billion/
 Goddard, A. (1998). The language of advertising. London: Routledge.
 Hong, T. & Kim, E. (2011). Segmenting customers in online stores based on factors that affect the customer’s intention to purchase. Expert Systems with Applications 39(2012).
 Jafari, S.M. & Tengku Sepora, T.M. (2014). The language of advertisement and its features and characteristics: investigating the issue from a deeper view. International Journal of English and Literature 4(6).
 Kannan, R. & Tyagi, S. (2013). Use of language in advertisements. English for Specific Purposes World 37(13).
 Karlsson, L. (2007). Advertising theories and models – how well can these be transferred from text to reality? http://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:306359/FULLTEX T01.pdf
 Labrador, B., Ramon, N., Alaiz-Moreton, H. & Sanjurjo-Gonzalez,H. (2014). Rhetorical structure and persuasive language in the subgenre of online advertisements. English for Specific Purposes 34(2014).
 Muda, M., Musa. R., Mohamed. R.N. & Borhan, H. Celebrity entrepreneur endorsement and advertising effectiveness. (2014). Procedia Social and behavioural Sciences 130(2014).
 Muhammad Helmi, A.B., Mohd Asyiek, M.D. & Mahizam, M. (2015). Attributes for image content that attract consumers’ attention to advertisements: Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 195(2015).
 Olubunmi, A. & Aliede, J.E. (2013). Advertising copy and layout. www.nou.edu.ng.
 Othman, A., Mohd Fazli, M.S. & Izaazati, H. (2010). E-business: obstacles and marketing strategy in selling fishing tools in Akapiman Enterprise.http://www.arpapress.com/Volumes/ Vol2Issue3/IJRRAS_2_3_13.pdf
 Puntoni, S., De Langhe, B. & Van Ossealaer, S.M.J. (2006). Bilingualism and the emotional intensity of advertising language. Journal of Consumer Research. 35(2009).
 Tellis, G.J. (2004). Effective Advertising: Understanding When, How, and Why Advertising Works. California: Sage Publications, Inc.
 Tellis, G.J. & Ambler, T. (2007). The Sage Handbook of Advertising. London: Sage Publicatons Ltd.
 Wu, K., Vassileva, J., Zhao, Y., Noorian. Z.W. & Adaji, I. (2016). Complexity r simplicity? Designing products pictures for advertising in online marketplaces. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 28(2016).
 Zucker, M.D. 2009. How to do case study research.http://scholarworks.umass.edu/nursing_fac ulty_pubs/2 Norizan Abdul Razak, Siti Nurul Asma’ Amran Inte
Cite this paper
Norizan Abdul Razak, Siti Nurul Asma’ Amran. (2017) Effective Language Use in Advertising in the Most Visible Online Stores: 2 Case Studies. International Journal of Education and Learning Systems, 2, 30-38